Leather Coral Facts
Leather Corals are members of the largest group of Octocorals found throughout the world!
Leather Corals are some of the most attractive corals found in the world's oceans. They are flexible and soft, but they also have a "leathery" feel. A type of soft coral in the family Alcyoniidae, they come in rich assortment of colors and shapes, The hardiest and most readily available for the aquarium are corals in the Sarcophyton, Lobophytum, Sinularia, and Cladiella genera.
Leather Corals are Soft Corals, but like the stony corals they are Cnidarians, meaning stinging celled animals. Their family, Alcyoniidae, is a member of the Alcyonacea Order. The Alcyonacea Order itself is part of the Subclass Octocorallia, known as Octocorals. This means that each polyp has the characteristic eight pinnate tentacles and eight septa used to gather and distribute food to the colony.
Taking many exotic forms, Leather Corals are quite fascinating. They often have a very rich and colorful palette. Soft corals in general have all the colors of the rainbow, but their predominant hues are rust, red, orange, yellow, olive and purple.
Many types of Leather Corals are easy to keep with great success. These are also some of the best beginner aquarium soft corals. Many species thrive and will grow quickly in captivity, and many of the popular Leather Corals are successfully propagated in captivity.
For Information on keeping Corals see:Reef Tanks - Mini-Reef Aquarium Basics
Cabbage Leather Coral, Lobophytum sp.
This leather coral is one of over 40 species in the Lobophytum genus. They have fully retractable polyps and this genus has a short wide low stalk and has folds across its upper surface that are crowded planted or fingerlike. The shapes of this genus can be bowl, dish or upright and shed mucus that should be kept off of other corals. Moderate light and moderate water flow and good calcium levels will help this coral grow quickly. Feed them foods that filter feeders eat.
Cabbage Leather Coral, Sinularia brassica
The Cabbage Leather Coral, Sinularia brassica (inaccurately called dura) is one of the species that reproduce by dropping branches or fragmenting. These toxic corals will not be bothered by angelfish! They should not be kept with Acropora and Porites as they will stunt or inhibit their growth, often killing these stony corals. Even LPS like Euphyllia, Catalaphyllia and Pleogyra will die from the Sinularia genus' toxins. Some colonies of Sinularia can be over 100 years old!
Colt Coral, Cladiella sp.
The Colt Coral is in the Cladiella genus. There are 40 species and many are referred to as Colt or Finger Leather Corals. While color is not a good indication as to whether they are a Cladiella or Alcyonium, typically Colt Corals are cream to grayish white with brown or greenish brown polyps. That, along with shorter lobed projections, encrusting with a very short stalk and a heavy and lumpy appearance can help identify the Colt Coral.
Devil's Hand Coral, Lobophytum pauciflorum
Captive specimen and friend
This is a cool video of a Hippo Tank enjoying a "rest" on this Devil's Hand Coral. These corals give off very strong toxins that can retard the growth or kill stony corals. If the tank is hundreds of gallons, they may be okay together. When they sloth off their mucus, make sure it doesn't land on any other corals or it will kill them. Tank size for just this coral is 50 gallons, and being subtropical, the L. pauciforum will require a chiller to keep the temperature lower than 73˚F.
Common Toadstool Coral, Sarcophyton glaucum
Beautiful captive specimen
The Common Toadstool Coral grows to 4" if it is a male and 24" if it is female! There is no way of knowing the sex, so an aquarist may find themselves either fragging or giving away their giant female Toadstool Coral! In some instances, such as adding a small Common Toadstool Coral to a tank that has larger and more mature softies, the growth may be stunted. While their toxins that they emit into the water is detrimental to stony corals, they can be stung by corals that come in contact with them. If your tank is 30" deep and at least 24" front to back, give it a go!
Elephant Ear Coral, Sarcophyton trocheliophorum
The Elephant Ear or Green Toadstool Coral grows to 3 feet across and 3 to 4 feet if it is a female and much smaller if it is female! Unlike the Common Toadstool, the polyps are shorter. There is no way of knowing the sex, so an aquarist may find themselves either fragging or giving away their giant Elephant Ear Coral! In some instances, such as adding a small Elephant Ear Coral to a tank that has larger and more mature softies, the growth may be stunted. If your tank is 4 feet deep and at least 36" front to back, give it a go!
Finger Leather Coral, Sinularia notanda
Beautiful green captive specimen
The Finger Leather Coral can grow a foot or more, though it depends on the other softies in the tank. They can stunt the corals growth and if the coral grows too tall, it can be easily trimmed, propagated and sold for a profit! They have lobes, fingers or crests with polyps that siphon food from the water. Do not house with stony corals unless the tank is very large or your softie is small.
Flexible Leather Coral, Sinularia flexibilis
Captive specimen, day and night video
The Flexible Leather Coral, Sinularia flexibilis, is different from the Finger Leather Coral in that the branches are longer, thinner and more erratic. The polyps are not as "fluffy" as the Finger Leather Coral and when you see them side by side it is obvious. While they can grow up to 10" (25 cm), they tend to reproduce and spread horizontally and can take up an entire aquarium, making for an interesting display! Grab yourself a green one, let it multiply and then frag, sell and cha-ching!
Yellow Leather Coral, Sarcophyton elegans
Great instructional video (elegans at 50 seconds)
This is a great video of a beautiful Yellow Leather Coral at 50 seconds. The distinct yellow coloring along with shorter yellow polyps is what sets it apart from a "Yellow Toadstool." They are highly prized for the home aquaria, as yellow is one of the most sought after colors in a marine tank. They are moderately difficult and should be kept by intermediate aquarists. They can grow about 2 feet if it is a female and only 4" for a male. A very large tank should be used, being at least 30" tall and 24" front to back. Adding a small juvenile to a tank with other leathers may impede it's growth, so using products to take toxins out of the water that softies produce is a good idea. Do not house with stony corals unless the tank is hundreds of gallons and the Yellow Leather Coral is kept quite small.
Leather Coral Facts Leather Corals are members in the Family Alcyoniidae. They form the largest group of Octocorals found throughout the world. The Alcyoniidae family is found just about everywhere except the Atlantic Ocean, which has only a few deep-water species in the Alcyonium Genus.
Many of these corals can grow very large, as well as form extremely large colonies. They include:
- Lobophytum genus
These are found in a number of habitats, but primarily reef flats. They are also found in shallow waters close to shore where they may be exposed during low tide.
- Sarcophyton genus
These species are also found on reef flats, well as in lagoons.
- Sinularia genus
This is one of the most predominant of all the soft corals. They inhabit many diverse locations, but especially shallow waters with strong water movement.
- Cladiella genus
These have a very wide range that includes back reefs, reef slopes, and reef flats.
Small cuttings of Leather Corals are easily collected from the wild. They are less prone to damage or ailments from collecting and shipping than the stony corals, or than the Octocorals known as Gorgonians. Mosts species thrive and grow quickly in captivity with many of the popular Leather Corals successfully propagated in captivity.
Leather Coral Care Leather Corals are quite hardy and some of the easiest corals to keep. They can grow into beautiful, impressive specimens in the soft coral reef tank. They are considered the best beginner aquarium soft corals, are commonly available, and for the most part are reasonably priced. They are also easy to propagate in captivity by simply cutting them into coral frags.
A typical reef environment is what is needed for Leather Corals. They are generally very hardy and will thrive in a properly maintained reef aquarium. Most need a moderate to strong water flow and tend to do very well under various types of reef tank fluorescent lighting. Metal halides are not needed. They do need good water quality maintained, so a protein skimmer and frequent water changes are very helpful.
Leather Corals will sometimes become a surrogate host for clownfish if there is no host anemone available. However, they can be toxic to other sessile tank mates. They don't have a strong sting from their tentacles, but they do emit chemicals to ward off other corals competing for the same space. Provide plenty of room between them and other corals, at least a few inches.
Excellent filtration with a protein skimmer, along with activated carbon, can help to remove and control some of the toxin. But Leather Corals can do best when kept in a tank dedicated to softies or a very minimal mix with other corals, depending on the type and space available. They are also easy to propagate in captivity by simply cutting them into coral frags.
Sometimes Leather Corals will shrink, and may appear to be dying. This is a natural event where they shed their outer layer and then regrow it. When you see this, they are generally fine and it will just take a little time before they are back to normal.
Feeding Leather Corals Like the stony corals, Leather Corals obtain their nutrition from multiple sources. They receive most of their nutrients through a symbiotic relationship with marine algae, known as zooxanthellae. They also capture planktonic organisms and microscopic food particles from the water column and can absorb dissolved organic matter.
Leather Corals live in symbiosis with the marine algae, zooxanthellae, and derive the majority of their nutrition from it. Yet in captivity they usually will eagerly accept small foods like brine shrimp and plankton as well. They will also benefit from occasionally soaking the food in vitamins. Their polyps can completely retract into the surface. It is common for soft corals to change forms, even within a single species, to adjust to different water flows and types of prey.
Leather Coral Identification Leather Corals are Cnidarians, which means stinging celled animals. They are also members of the Subclass Octocorallia, known as the Octocorals. These are corals that generally have eight-fold symmetry or eight-branched tentacles in their polyp structure.
Under the Subclass Octocorallia is the Alcyonacea order, which consists of hundreds of animals that are further divided into several families and suborders. These include not only the Soft Corals which encompasses the Leather Corals, but also the Gorgonians. Many other unique Octocorals include the Sea Pens, Blue Coral, and Mat Polyps like the Organ Pipe Coral and Green Star Polyps
Leather corals are primarily colonial sessile animals, meaning they are anchored firmly to the substrate, and from there they can be either erect or encrusting. They can have either a fleshy or leather-like texture and include some of the most vibrantly colored corals. These corals have many colorful hues, but are predominantly yellow, orange, red, rust, olive, and purple. They tend to have a more leathery feel, while other Soft Corals tend to be sticky or slimy to the touch.
The hermatypic, or reef building corals, are the stony corals. Leather Corals are not reef building corals because unlike the stony corals, they do not have a rigid calcium carbonate skeleton. They are composed mostly of living tissue, though they do have tiny calcareous components called sclerites.
The sclerites are spiny skeletal elements embedded within the Leather Coral's tissue. They help to give lthese corals some support and add a grainy texture. They are also used to help identify them at a microscopic level. Though leather corals don't add large calcareous masses to the reef like stony corals do, their sclerites do add large amounts of sediment to the reef.
The Leather Coral's entire surface, known as the coenenchyme, is covered with small polyps. The polyps consist of two types of polyps, the autozooids and the siphonozooids.
- Autozooid Polyps
The polyps known as autozooids have eight pinnate tentacles and eight septae. Their role is to acquire food for the colony. The tentacles capture the prey, primarily planktonic foods from the water column, and move it to the mouth in the center. The eight septae are equal sized compartments with interconnecting channels that distribute the food throughout the colony.
- Siphonozooid Polyps
The second type of polyp is known as siphonozooids. It has reduced tentacles and cilia, along with an oral cavity. Its job is to pump water into the body of the colony, which supplies oxygen and also helps so keep the soft coral erect.
Types of Leather Corals Leather Corals are members of the Order Alcyonacea and are then placed in the Suborder Alcyoniina (‘true' Soft Corals). The Order Alcyonacea itself is part of the Subclass Octocorallia, known as the Octocorals. These are corals with eight-branched tentacles in their polyp structure.
The systematic classification of Octocorals involves a huge, highly complex, and diverse group which at present is considered poorly understood and understudied. Current taxonomy is under constant flux. So it is to be expected that classifications will continue to change. In fact many experts are in favor of a complete revision.
Subclass: Octocorallia - Corals with eight-branched tentacles and eight septae in their polyp structure
Order: Alcyonacea - Includes the Soft Corals, Leather Corals, and Gorgonians (sea fans and sea whips)
- Suborder: Alcyoniina - the "true" Soft Corals
Family: Alcyoniidae - Leather Corals
These are soft corals that are mostly referred to as the Leather Corals. This family includes some of the hardiest aquarium coral species. They are often found in areas of high nutrients and lower water quality than others, which lends to being excellent beginners soft corals. They are known for being thick and encrusting and for their leathery skin. They can grow very large and take on many forms.
Although these are in the Alcyoniidae family they differ from the leather corals because they are slimy to touch rather than leathery. Therefore we have included them in with the Soft Corals.
The surface of these corals tends to fold or create finger-like extensions or lobes. Thus the common names include Finger Leather Corals, Cabbage Leather Coral, Lobed Leather Coral, and Devil's Hand Coral.
These corals can have a tree-like shape or a thin flat form. They can also be very limp or flaccid, so are commonly called such things as Flexible Leather Coral, Cabbage Leather Coral, Knobby Leather Corals, Flat Leather Coral, and Finger Leather Coral.
These corals are not as easy to keep, nor to propagate, as other Leather Coral Varieties. They tend to form low knobby stalks, thus they have common names like the Finger Leather Coral, Colt Coral, and Stubby Finger Leather Coral.
These are hardy Leather Corals characterized by a distinct stalk with a broad top, called the capitulum. They need a lot of space as well as a strong water movement and high intensity lighting. They are commonly known as the Toadstool Coral, Cup Leather Coral, Leather Coral, Mushroom Leather Coral, Trough Coral, as well as one species known as the Elephant Ear Soft Coral.
Soft Corals for Beginners Soft corals include many of the easy to care for coral favorites. This is especially true for the Leather Corals in the Sarcophyton, Lobophytum, Sinularia, and Cladiella genera. These are the considered the best beginner aquarium soft corals. They tend to have a more leathery feel, while other Soft Corals tend to be sticky or slimy to the touch.
Leather Corals: Leather Corals are generally very hardy though they do need a typical reef aquarium environment. Most leather corals need a moderate to strong water flow and tend to do well under various types of reef tank fluorescent lighting. Metal halides are not needed.
Leather Corals - Easy care:
- Colt Coral - Cladiella Sp.
- Common Toadstool Coral - Sarcophyton glaucum
- Yellow Leather Coral - Sarcophyton elegans
- Yellow Toadstool Leather Coral - Sarcophyton tenuispiculatum
- Elephant Ear Coral - Sarcophyton trocheliophorum
- Cabbage Leather Coral - Lobophytum crassum
- Devil's Hand Coral - Lobophytum Sp.
- Cabbage Leather Coral - Sinularia dura
- Finger Leather Coral - Sinularia notanda
Leather Corals - Moderate Care:
- Yellow Leather Coral - Sarcophyton elegans
- Flexible Leather Coral - Sinularia flexibilis
- Long Polyp Leather Coral Sarcophyton ehrenbergi
Other types of Soft Corals: There are hundreds of other types of soft corals. Each of these beautiful animals will have care requirements that are just as diverse as they are. Consequently not all soft corals are easy keepers. It is very important to learn about the soft coral species you keep for a successful reef aquarium.
Popular soft coral varieties include:
- Carnation Coral Dendronephthya sp.
- Kenya Tree Coral Capnella sp.
- Tree Coral Lemnalia sp.
- Palm Tree Polyps Clavularia sp.
- Waving Hand Coral Anthelia sp.
- Green Star Polyps Pachyclavularia violacea
- The Xenia species are also sought after, especially the fascinating Pulse Coral Xenia sp.
- Animal-World References: Marine and Reef
- Harry Erhardt and Horst Moosleitner, Marine Atlas Volume 2, Invertebrates (Baensch Marine Atlas), Mergus Verlag GmbH, Revised edition, 2005
- Eric Borneman, Aquarium Corals : Selection, Husbandry, and Natural History , TFH Publications, 2001
- Bob Fenner, The Soft Corals, Order Alcyonacea; Use In Marine Aquariums,WetWebMedia.com